General Ophthalmology

What is a Refraction?

Refraction is the act of determining what power lens is need to correct an Ammetropia including the generation of a prescription for corrective lenses.

What is Amblyopia?

Amblyopia is commonly called "lazy eye". Amblyopia is impaired vision in one or both eyes that cannot be corrected with appropriate corrective lenses. This occurs when one or both eyes sends a blurry vision to the brain. Because of this, the child's developing visual pathway does not learn to see clearly. Amblyopia often does not have an obvious organic cause in the structures of the eye of visual pathway. Fortunately, Amblyopia can improve (and often be cured) if caught and treated early enough. However, if Amblyopia is not treated when the child is young the visual loss can be permanent. It is very important to have a child screened at a young age to catch any Amblyopia that might be present.

What is Strabismus?

Strabismus is a misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. Strabismus is defined by the direction of eye misalignment: Esotropia, Exotropia, Hypertropia, Hypotropia.

What is Esotropia?

Esotropia is an eye misalignment where one or both eyes turn in towards the nose. Esotropia can be congenital (from birth) or acquired (developing after the child is 6 months of age). Esotropia is commonly referred to as "crossed eyes".

What is Exotropia?

Exotropia is an eye misalignment where one or both eyes drift out towards the ears. Exotropia can be congenital (after birth) or acquired (developing after the age of 6 months). Some children with Exotropia only exhibit drifting of the eyes on occasion, which is known as Intermittent Exotropia. Exotropia is commonly called "wall eyed".

What are Hypertropia and Hypotropia?

Hypertropia is an eye misalignment where one eye of the eyes drifts up. Hypertropia can be due to any number of conditions and occasionally occurs in conjunction with Esotropia and Exotropia. Hypotropia is an eye misalignment where one of the eyes drifts down.

What is R.O.P?

R.O.P stands for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Patients with R.O.P have have abnormal blood vessels and scar tissue that develop over the retina of the eye. This potentially blinding condition occurs in infants born prematurely. In many premature babies, the abnormal blood vessels simply resolve without any permanent loss of vision or vision potential. However, is some patients, the disease can be more extensive. These more severe cases may have moderate to severe loss of vision due to the scare tissue and abnormal blood vessels causing distortion or detachment of the retina.

There is treatment to prevent the loss of vision that can occur with severe cases of R.O.P Laser photocoagulation surgery has been shown to prevent or reverse the abnormal growth of vessels and scare tissue that can occur in babies with R.O.P. Babies with R.O.P may be required to see an Ophthalmologist frequently to document the progression of the disease and any changes that are occurring. Even with treatment and careful follow up, there is still a serious risk of visual loss.

What is Dry Eye Syndrome?

The tear film is a complex mixture of water and chemicals that moisturize and protect the eye. It also acts as a focusing surface for the eye. Dry eyes are caused by an abnormality of the tear film.  Dry eyes does not necessarily mean your eyes will feel "dry". Itching, burning, scratchy sensation, or intermittent blurring of the vision can all be symptoms of "Dry Eye".

What are Eye Floaters?

Floaters look like black or gray specks, strings or cobwebs that drift about when you move your eyes. These are normally caused by age-related changes that occur as the jelly-like substance (Vitreous Humor) inside your eyes becomes more liquid. As this happens, microscopic fibers within the Vitreous Humor tend to clump together and can cast tiny shadows on the retina, which can be seen as "floaters".

Pediatric Ophthalmology Conditions

Can Baby See?

Abnormal eye movements or poor fixation noted in infants means means a complete pediatric exam is necessary. Early intervention can identify problems and treatment for the visually challenged.

Could headaches be caused by vision problems?

Frequent eye strain is blamed as the reason for headaches. A Pediatric Ophthalmologist can diagnose and separate those brought on by eyes vs. other causes.

What can be done for Nystagmus (or Jiggly Eyes)?

Patients with this problem require a complete Neuro-Ophthalmologic exam. Treatment is aimed at improving the abnormal associated head position or decreasing the jiggling.

Ptosis of the Eyelids

This abnormality can occur at any age. Treatment is usually surgical.

Unexplained Visual Loss

Patients who have decreased vision may not have a straightforward cause for it based on an eye exam. They may require an examination extending further into the Central Nervous System. This is where the duel training of a Pediatric Ophthalmologist is helpful.

Tearing

Many infants has congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions which can lead to chronic infections involving the eye and the lids. Surgical intervention is needed if antibiotics fail after a trail.

White Pupil

A white pupil may be notices easily in a photograph. It can be indicative of a serious eye disease such as cataract, infection, inflammation, birth defects or tumors. A complete eye exam is necessary.

Eye Misalignment (Crossed Eyes)

This can affect people of all ages. Pediatric Ophthalmologists are specifically trained to treat these conditions. One cannot simple "grow out of" these conditions. Glasses, patching and/or surgery are possible treatments.

Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)

This is a major preventable cause of visual dysfunction in the U.S. If this condition is left untreated by the age of seven the lazy eye can be irreversibly "hard wired" into the brain. This condition must be treated vigorously as soon as it is detected in young children.

Eye Trauma

Children often suffer from blunt trauma in sports or horse play. An area of bleeding over the white portion of the eye may indicate serious internal damage. Fireworks and BB Guns are often associated with penetrating eye injuries and serious visual loss can be a consequence.

Neuro-Ophthalmology

What is a Neuro-Ophthalmologist?

Neuro-Ophthalmologists take care of visual problems that are related to nervous system; that is, visual problems that do not come from the eyes themselves. Neuro-Ophthalmology, a sub-specialty of both neurology and Ophthalmology, requires specialized training and expertise in problem of the eyes, brain, nerves and muscles. Neuro-Ophthalmologists complete at least five years of clinical training after medical school and are usually board certified in Neurology, Ophthalmology or both.  Neuro-Ophthalmologists have the unique ability to evaluate patients from a Neurologic, Ophthalmologic and medical standpoint to diagnose and treat a wide variety of problems. Costly medical testing is often avoided by seeing a Neuro-Ophthalmologist.

How do I prepare for a Neuro-Ophthalmology Exam?

  1. Prior to appointment, have a written referral and office notes from referring and/or treating physician(s) sent to Progressive Eye Care, along with an laboratory results and any CT or MRI scan results. 
  2. Expect appointment to be at least 2 1/2 to 4 hours. These appointments involve a thorough assessment of patient and patient family history and a careful, extensive examination including a visual field test. Your pupils will be dilated, which can cause vision to be blurry and eyes to be light sensitive for a few hours. 
  3. If possible - pick up actual images or a CD of CT and/or MRI scan results. 
  4. Bring a complete list of medications including the name of the drug and the dosage. This includes any prescriptions and/or over the counter medications. 

 

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